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Ohman I, Vitols S, Luef G et al. Topiramate kinetics during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate: preliminary observations. Epilepsia. PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: Topiramate sprinkle capsules may cause birth defects if you take it while you are pregnant. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor right away. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of taking topiramate sprinkle capsules while you are pregnant. You and your doctor will need to decide if you will continue to take topiramate sprinkle capsules while you are pregnant. Topiramate sprinkle capsules are found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you take topiramate sprinkle capsules, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby. sertraline pills online purchase now

It should not be stored for future use

Remember, a person with epilepsy should never stop taking medicine without a doctor's consent. Stopping medication may lead to more, even stronger seizures. Call your doctor for instructions if you miss two or more doses. What happens if I overdose? Additional food intake may be considered if the patient is losing weight while on this medication. Knopman, D. and Patterson, M. An open-label, 24-week pilot study of the methyl donor betaine in Alzheimer disease patients. Alzheimer Dis. Check with your doctor right away if you or your child are having unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, feelings of sluggishness, mental depression or anxiety, nightmares or unusually vivid dreams, or vomiting. These may be symptoms of a serious condition called hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

How does it work?

The third column topiramate concentration describes how the coadministration of a drug listed in the first column modifies the concentration of topiramate in experimental settings when topiramate was given alone. Tablets should be told to seek immediate medical attention if they experience blurred vision or periorbital pain. Tablets, call your healthcare provider or poison control center right away or go to the nearest emergency room. Check with your pharmacist about how to dispose of unused medicine.

Topiramate drug interactions

Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. Keep out of the reach of children. If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using topiramate. You may need to stop using the medicine for a short time.



Topiramate dosing information

Approximately 14% of the 77 pediatric patients in the 400 mg per day group who received topiramate as monotherapy in Study 1 discontinued therapy due to adverse reactions. Some parents worry that their children may later abuse drugs after taking epilepsy medicines during childhood. They work faster than some other preventive options. These drugs may help if your headaches usually crop up during a period of less than 3 weeks. The abuse and dependence potential of Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules have not been evaluated in human studies. Although appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of topiramate have not been performed in the geriatric population, geriatric-specific problems are not expected to limit the usefulness of topiramate in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving topiramate. Lindor, K. D. Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules may cause eye problems. Topiramate sprinkle capsules may cause high blood ammonia levels hyperammonemia. This risk may be greater in patients with metabolism problems or certain liver problems. It may also be greater in patients who are taking valproic acid. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience decreased alertness, mental changes, sluggishness, unusual tiredness, or vomiting. These dose-related adverse reactions began with a similar frequency in the titration or in the maintenance phase, although in some patients the events began during titration and persisted into the maintenance phase. Some patients who experienced one or more cognitive-related adverse events in the titration phase had a dose-related recurrence of these events in the maintenance phase. Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ: A drug-drug interaction study conducted in healthy volunteers evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of HCTZ 25 mg q24h and topiramate 96 mg q12h when administered alone and concomitantly. The results of this study indicate that topiramate C max increased by 27% and AUC increased by 29% when HCTZ was added to topiramate. The clinical significance of this change is unknown. The addition of HCTZ to topiramate therapy may require an adjustment of the topiramate dose. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of HCTZ were not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of topiramate. Clinical laboratory results indicated decreases in serum potassium after topiramate or HCTZ administration, which were greater when HCTZ and topiramate were administered in combination. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. 'Multum' is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Buy a pill box for your child with spaces for each dose. You might also want to use alarms -- maybe on a wrist watch, cell phones, or computer -- to remind your child to take his or her medication. Nunez-Rinta, R. Allergic contact dermatitis to cocamidopropyl betaine in Colombia. Allergol. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial Neurology. Its action on pores has been proposed as a mechanism.



General information about topiramate

Topiramate is not extensively metabolized and is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine approximately 70% of an administered dose. Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. The metabolites are formed via hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. There is evidence of renal tubular reabsorption of topiramate. In rats, given probenecid to inhibit tubular reabsorption, along with topiramate, a significant increase in renal clearance of topiramate was observed. This interaction has not been evaluated in humans. In subjects with hepatic impairment, the clearance of topiramate may be decreased; the mechanism underlying the decrease is not well understood. The multidisciplinary evaluation is directed by a neurologist specializing in epilepsy an epileptologist. A patient's eligibility for surgery is determined jointly by the neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist, neuropsychologist, social worker, and epileptologist. The decision to have the surgery is made jointly by the patient and the epileptologist after carefully reviewing the risks and benefits of the procedure. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip themissed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. not double the dose to catch up. If you have missed more than one dose, ask your doctor or for advice. Tablets without talking to your healthcare provider. furadantin



Topiramate side effects

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take topiramate sprinkle capsules or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about topiramate sprinkle capsules. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to topiramate sprinkle capsules. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using topiramate sprinkle capsules. Clinical studies of immediate-release topiramate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. The Qudexy XR and Topamax Sprinkle Capsule can be swallowed whole. Or you may open the capsule and sprinkle the medicine into a spoonful of applesauce or other soft food. Swallow right away without chewing. Do not save the mixture for later use. Discard the empty capsule. How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions? Patients in this study were permitted a maximum of two antiepileptic drugs AEDs in addition to topiramate or placebo. Patients were stabilized on optimum dosages of their concomitant AEDs during an 8-week baseline phase. Patients who experienced at least three primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures during the baseline phase were randomly assigned to placebo or topiramate in addition to their other AEDs. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: Infrequent: vasodilation. Your healthcare provider may do blood tests while you take Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules. You may also report side effects to UPSHER-SMITH LABORATORIES, INC. at 1-855-899-9180. Contact your doctor if these problems occur. Severe Precaution: Potential risk of metabolic acidosis, slowed growth, infection, hyperthermia, oligohidrosis, increased creatinine, hyperammonemia, secondary angle closure glaucoma. Metabolic acidosis may have harmful effects on your baby. Talk to your healthcare provider if Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules have caused metabolic acidosis during your pregnancy. Topiramate, USP, is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg capsules for oral administration as whole capsules or opened and sprinkled onto a spoonful of soft food. This medication passes into milk. Consult your doctor before -feeding. The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of topiramate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The listing is alphabetized: bullous skin reactions including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis hepatic failure including fatalities hepatitis, maculopathy, pancreatitis, and pemphigus. How should I take Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules? shop nimotop venezuela nimotop



Topiramate warnings

Czuczwar, K; Czuczwar, M; Cieszczyk, J; Gawlik, P; Luszczki, JJ; Borowicz, KK; Czuczwar, SJ 2004. “Neuroprotective activity of antiepileptic drugs”. Przeglad lekarski. Other surgical approaches are reserved for specific types of epilepsy and are most often performed in young children. Topiramate may increase the plasma-levels of phenytoin. Holden, J. M. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. Ferrari, A; Tiraferri, I; Neri, L; Sternieri, E September 2011. “Clinical pharmacology of topiramate in migraine prevention. Vasudev, K; Macritchie, K; Geddes, J; Watson, S; Young, A 25 January 2006. PDF. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: CD003384. NOTE: TROKENDI XR R capsules are hard and must be swallowed whole and not chewed, crushed, or sprinkled on food. generic prozac purchase shopping otc



What other drugs will affect topiramate

Topiramate does not influence the binding of sodium valproate. Topiramate for migraine prevention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. Verapamil cuts down on how many headaches you get. It can take a while to start working. So in the meantime, you may also need to take other preventive medicines that work faster, such as steroids. You may be nervous about giving powerful epilepsy drugs, with all their possible side effects, to a small child. But drug treatments usually work, and stopping the seizures is crucial. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. You should avoid drinking alcohol when taking Topiramate. Compared to the fasted state, high-fat meal had no effect on bioavailability AUC and C max but delayed the T max by approximately 4 hours following a single dose of Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules. Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules can be taken without regard to meals. Cold or allergy medicine, sedatives, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for depression or anxiety can add to sleepiness caused by topiramate. Tell your doctor if you regularly use any of these medicines, or any other seizure medication. Periera Rde S. Regression of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms using dietary supplementation with melatonin, vitamins and aminoacids: comparison with omeprazole. Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products. Annals of General Psychiatry. Schumann, H. Contact dermatitis due to use of Octenisept in wound care. J Dtsch. What is clear, however, is that epilepsy drugs should at least be considered for discontinuation in patients who are seizure-free for 10 years. If a medication is going to be discontinued, it should be weaned gradually to avoid triggering a seizure. Dispense in tight containers. Protect from moisture. In published reports of anticonvulsant use during breastfeeding, most women were taking a combination of anticonvulsants.



List of topiramate side effects

The following pediatric use information is based on studies conducted with immediate-release topiramate. Topiramate is known as an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. Rodriguez-Aguado, C. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a betaine-containing mouthwash and an intraoral device for the treatment of dry mouth. J Oral Pathol. Due to an increased risk for problems, people with certain such as Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome should not use this medication. Children younger than 2 years who might have these disorders should not use this medication. Children older than 2 years who might have these disorders should be closely monitored during treatment with sodium. Talk to your doctor for details. Counsel patients that Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules can cause a reduction in body temperature, which can lead to alterations in mental status. If they note such changes, they should call their health care professional and measure their body temperature. What other drugs will affect topiramate Topamax? Your doctor may recommend that you take a prescription medicine every day to prevent headaches. Cipriani, A; Barbui, C; Salanti, G; Rendell, J; Brown, R; Stockton, S; Purgato, M; Spineli, LM; Goodwin, GM; Geddes, JR 8 October 2011. "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive. Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, McElroy S. Treatment of binge disorder with topiramate: a clinical case series. J Clin Psychiatry. Discontinuation of the drug may be necessary to prevent permanent vision loss. Tell your doctor right away if you see partial tablets in your stool. These eye problems can lead to permanent loss of vision if not treated. You should call your healthcare provider right away if you have any new eye symptoms. buy generic topamax online australia



How to take topiramate

Is topiramate available as a generic drug? Women who are planning a pregnancy should be counseled regarding the relative risks and benefits of topiramate use during pregnancy, and alternative therapeutic options should be considered for these patients. Wilding J, Van Gaal L, Rissanen A, Vercruysse F, Fitchet M; OBES-002 Study Group. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of the long-term efficacy and safety of topiramate in the treatment of obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. The effectiveness of topiramate as an adjunctive treatment for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients 2 years old and older was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Study 9 comparing a single dosage of topiramate and placebo. If your mania is severe, you may need to stay in a hospital until your symptoms are under control. Electroconvulsive therapy ECT may also be something your doctor considers. money order armidex mastercard usa armidex



Topiramate forms and strengths

Johnson. It was discovered in 1979 by Drs. Bruce E. Maryanoff and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceutical. Generic versions are available in Canada and were FDA approved in September 2006. Topiramate is also used to prevent migraine headaches in adults. Topiramate will only prevent migraine headaches or reduce the number of attacks. It will not treat a headache that has already begun. Iles, R. A. Betaine metabolism in human neonates and developing rats. Clin. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, your doctor may prescribe a different medication instead of topiramate because topiramate may harm the fetus. If you do not plan to become pregnant, you should use birth control to prevent pregnancy during your treatment with topiramate. Talk to your doctor about what type of birth control you should use, because taking topiramate may decrease the effectiveness of some types of birth control. If you become pregnant while you are taking topiramate, call your doctor right away, but do not stop taking topiramate before talking to your doctor. Mar MH, Zeisel SH. Betaine in wine: answer to the French paradox? It should not be stored for future use. TMS may short-circuit a migraine by turning on your brain in a particular way. When you feel a headache coming, hold a small device that releases a pulse of magnetic energy on the back of your head for about a minute. You'll need a prescription for this gadget, too. Celebisoy, N; Gökçay, F; Sirin, H; Akyürekli, O 2007. “Treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: topiramate vs acetazolamide, an open-label study”. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Tablets may cause eye problems. Paresthesia usually tingling of the extremities an effect associated with the use of other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, appears to be a common effect of topiramate. Paresthesia was more frequently reported in the monotherapy epilepsy trials versus the adjunctive therapy epilepsy trials. In the majority of instances, paresthesia did not lead to treatment discontinuation. And make sure your doctor knows about all other drugs you take. MS method validation for plasma determination of topiramate in healthy Indian volunteers. Biomed. Chromatogr. 23: 1227-1241, 2009. finasteride



How should i store topiramate

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. 'Multum' is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of topiramate. Tablets can be taken without regard to meals. Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if your medicine is listed above. Linde, M; Mulleners, WM; Chronicle, EP; McCrory, DC 24 June 2013. PDF. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD010610. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Infrequent: dehydration, hypokalemia, alkaline phosphatase increased, hypocalcemia, hyperlipemia, hyperglycemia, xerophthalmia, diabetes mellitus. Rare: hyperchloremia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hypocholesterolemia, hypophosphatemia, creatinine increased. Sex hormones and their modulators”. Always be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label. Refer to the product package information for advice on missed doses. The treatment effects with respect to time to first seizure were consistent across various patient subgroups defined by age, sex, geographic region, baseline body weight, baseline seizure type, time since diagnosis, and baseline AED use.



American Epilepsy Society web site

American Epilepsy Society web site. The majority of epileptic are controlled by medication, particularly anticonvulsant drugs. The type of treatment prescribed will depend on several factors, including the frequency and severity of the seizures and the person's age, overall health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of is also critical to choosing the best treatment. Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules may be swallowed whole or, if you cannot swallow the capsule whole, you may carefully open the Topiramate Extended-Release Capsule and sprinkle the medicine on a spoonful of soft food like applesauce. Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day. not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when this drug is suddenly stopped. Your dose may need to be gradually decreased. Clearance was independent of dose. hydroxyzine cost costa rica



Side effects of topiramate

Topiramate sprinkle capsules are to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people. There isn't a strict rule about this, and it varies with each child. Usually, doctors will try different epilepsy drugs at different doses to determine the best one for your child. Your child should take just enough medicine to prevent seizures without causing side effects. You and your child's doctor may need to tinker with the prescription over a few months to find the right dose. It's worth the effort. Too much medication increases the side effects, while too little leaves your child vulnerable to seizures. Celebisoy, N; Gökçay, F; Sirin, H; Akyürekli, O 2007. "Treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: topiramate vs acetazolamide, an open-label study". Acta neurologica Scandinavica. To lower the chance of getting cut, bruised, or injured, use caution with sharp objects like razors and nail cutters, and avoid activities such as contact sports. There is a wide number of available for in children, and advances in the past years have made a difference. In fact, nine new have become available in the last decade. livep.info cephalexin



What is topiramate

Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, et al. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness including alcohol, antihistamines such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine drugs for sleep or anxiety such as alprazolam, zolpidem muscle relaxants such as carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine and narcotic pain relievers such as codeine, hydrocodone. Overdose symptoms may include drowsiness, agitation, depression, double vision, thinking problems, problems with speech or coordination, fainting, and seizure convulsions. What should I avoid while taking Topiragen topiramate? Only some of the 20 or so medications used to treat have been approved by the FDA for use in children. Legally, your doctor may prescribe any of the drugs. Still, it's important to be cautious in trying new adult drugs in children until there's good evidence that they are safe in younger, small bodies. Discuss your child's options carefully with the doctor. Closely monitor Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules-treated patients, especially pediatric patients, for evidence of decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather. Johnson BA, Rosenthal N, Capece JA, et al. October 2007. The abuse and dependence potential of topiramate has not been evaluated in human studies. The dosage is based on your age, weight, medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same time each day to keep the amount of medication in your blood constant. In hepatically impaired patients, topiramate should be administered with caution as the clearance of topiramate may be decreased. McElroy SL, Arnold LM, Shapira NA, Keck PE, Rosenthal NR, Rezaul Karim M, Kamin M, Hudson JI. Topiramate in the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. DailyMed. Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited. Soderling E, Le Bell A, Kirstila V, Tenovuo J. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Topiramate has anticonvulsant activity in rat and mouse maximal electroshock seizure MES tests. Topiramate is only weakly effective in blocking clonic seizures induced by the GABA-A receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole. Topiramate is also effective in rodent models of epilepsy, which include tonic and absence-like seizures in the spontaneous epileptic rat SER and tonic and clonic seizures induced in rats by kindling of the amygdala or by global ischemia. metoprolol



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What conditions does topiramate treat


Highlights for topiramate

Topiramate can be taken with or without food. The topiramate tablet should be swallowed whole. It has a bitter taste when chewed or broken. McCarty MF. Co-administration of equimolar doses of betaine may alleviate the hepatotoxic risk associated with niacin therapy. If your doctor prescribes oxygen, you'll breathe through a mask connected to an oxygen tank for 15-20 minutes.

Epilepsy Foundation web site

The FDA approved topiramate as a tablet in 1997. Topiramate is a white to off-white powder. Topiramate is freely soluble in polar organic solvents such as acetonitrile and acetone; and very slightly soluble to practically insoluble in non-polar organic solvents such as hexanes. Topiramate has the molecular formula C 12H 21NO 8S and a molecular weight of 339. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness including alcohol, antihistamines such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine drugs for sleep or anxiety such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem muscle relaxants, and narcotic pain relievers such as codeine.

Mcneil - ppc, Inc

Bacino, C. A. Double-blind therapeutic trial in Angelman syndrome using betaine and folic acid. Am J Med Genet. Some manifestations of acute or chronic metabolic acidosis may include hyperventilation, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and anorexia, or more severe sequelae including cardiac arrhythmias or stupor. Smith, E. O. A study of the treatment of Rett syndrome with folate and betaine. J Child Neurol. Taking this medication during pregnancy can cause birth defects and may lower your child's IQ. Women of childbearing age should discuss the risks and benefits of this medication, other treatment options, and use of reliable forms of birth control with their doctor. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, immediately talk to your doctor. If you are taking divalproex sodium only to prevent migraine headaches, this medication must not be used during pregnancy.

Topiramate consumer information

Patient advice: Topiramate may cause drowsiness; avoid driving or operating machinery until you know how this drug affects you. Most MAO inhibitors should also not be taken for two weeks before treatment with this medication. Ask your doctor when to start or stop taking this medication. NOTE: For QUDEXY XR R and its generic forms the capsule may be swallowed or opened and sprinkled on a spoonful of soft food. TROKENDI XR R capsules are hard and must be swallowed whole and not chewed, crushed, or sprinkled on food. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. For a child with epilepsy, sticking to a medication schedule can be tough. It can be hard for a child to remember to take medicine twice or even three times a day.

Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 2 years have not been established for the adjunctive therapy treatment of partial onset seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, or seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In a single randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigational trial, the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of immediate-release topiramate oral liquid and sprinkle formulations as an adjunct to concurrent antiepileptic drug therapy in infants 1 to 24 months of age with refractory partial onset seizures, was assessed. The Food and Drug Administration FDA has issued a notification alerting physicians who prescribe topiramate, and their patients, to the risk of vision loss blindness.

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